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Ka-ná-tāi(加拿大; Canada), li̍k-sú-siōng hō tsò Ka-ná-tāi Tsū-tī-líng(加拿大自治領; Dominion of Canada/Le Dominion du Canada, sī tī Pak Bí-tsiu siāng pak-pîng ê kok-ka. Ka-ná-tāi miâ-gī-siōng sī tsi̍t ê ū hiàn-huat ê ông-kok, tsoo-tsit-siōng kiânn liân-pang tsè-tōo, ū tsa̍p síng, sann líng-thóo.

Ki-pún tsu-liāu[]

  • Kuann-hong gí-giân: Ing-gí, Huat-gí
  • Kok-ka ê thâu-lâng: I-lē-sa-pe̍h Jī-sè(伊麗莎白二世; Elizabeth II)
  • Síu-too: Ok-thài-huâ (渥太華;Ottawa)
  • Tsóng-tok (Governor General/Gooverneur général): David Johnston (2012 nî)
  • Síu-siòng: Stephen Harper (2012 nî)

Li̍k-sú[]

Guân-tsū-bîn tī Ka-ná-tāi í-king tuà ū 10,000 guā-tang. Tī kong-guân 1000-nî tsó-īu ê sî-tsūn, Uî-king-lâng(維京人; Viking) ū tuà tī hiān-tsú-sî Liú-hun-lân(紐芬蘭; Newfoundland) pak-hái-huānn ê Lóng-soh Muî-to-su(朗索梅多斯; L'Anse aux Meadows]] tsi̍t-tsām--á. He sī Au-tsiu-lâng thâu-tsi̍t-pái lâi kàu Ka-ná-tāi. Huat-kok-lâng tī tsa̍p-la̍k kap tsa̍p-tshit sè-kí ê sî-tsūn khai-sí puann-lâi khiā-khí tī Pak-bí-tsiu tang-pak-pōo, sī Europa-lâng tī Canada tn̂g-kî tīng-ki ê khí-thâu.

Ing-kok, Huat-kok kap Se-pan-gâ tī 1763-nî tshiam-tīng Pa-lê Tiâu-iok(巴黎條約), kā Tshit-nî Tsiàn-tsing siu-suah. Tī tsit-ê tiâu-iok lāi-té, Huat-kok tap-ìng hòng-khì i tī Pak-bí-tsiu tāi-lio̍k ê si̍t-bîn-tē, kā Ka-ná-tāi nīu hōo Ing-kok.

Bí-kok Kik-bīng liáu-āu, si̍t-bîn-tē tsi̍t-kuá îu-guân hāu-tiong Ing-kok ê lâng tsīunn-pak puann lâi kàu Ka-ná-tāi.

Tī 1867-nî, Ka-ná-tāi Síng (āu--lâi hun-tsò An-tāi-lio̍k(安大略; Ontario) kap Khue-Pak-khik(魁北克; Quebec), Sin Su-kho-sè-a(新斯科細亞;Nova Scotia) kap Sin Pik-lûn-suī-khik(新伯倫瑞克; New Brunswick) tsit sann-ê si̍t-bîn-tē ha̍p-pìng, kiàn-li̍p Ka-ná-tāi Tsū-tī-líng. Ài-tik-huâ Ông-tsú-tó(愛德華王子島; Prince Edward Island) kap Liú-hun-lân(紐芬蘭; Newfoundland) hit-tang-tsūn bô sīunn-beh kap tsuah-ê si̍t-bîn-tē ha̍p-tsò-hué, hun-pia̍t kàu 1873-nî kap 1949-nî tsiah ka-ji̍p Ka-ná-tāi.

Ing-kok tī 1931-nî thong-kuè Se-bín Huat-kui(西敏法規; The Statute of Westminster), tsìng-sik hōo Ka-ná-tāi piàn-tsò to̍k-li̍p ê kok-ka, ē-tàng ka-kī tsè-tīng huat-lu̍t. Ka-ná-tāi tī 1982-nî kā hiàn-huat uì Ing-kok suá tò-lâi tshù (patriation of the Constitution), tsū-án-ne Ka-ná-tāi siu-kái hiàn-huat m̄-bián koh su-iàu Ing-kok ê tông-ì.

Gí-giân[]

Ka-ná-tāi ê nn̄g-ê kuann-hong gí-giân sī Ing-gí kap Huat-gí.

Tī 1969-nî, Ka-ná-tāi kok-huē thong-kuè gī-àn, tsìng-sik kui-tīng Ing-gí kap Huat-gí tī liân-pang tsìng-hú kap kok-huē--ni̍h sī pîng-tíng ê gí-giân. Tse sī Ka-ná-tāi tē-it-ê Kuann-hong gí-giân huat-àn (Official Languages Act / Loi sur les langues officielles). I tsú-iàu ê bo̍k-tik sī Ing-gí kap Huat-gí siā-khu ê pó-tsûn kap huat-tián, í-ki̍p hō· tsit-nn̄g-ê gí-giân tī Canada siā-huē ē-tàng pînn-tsē-khiā.

Ka-ná-tāi tsìng-hú tī 1982-nî tsìng-sik suan-kò Hiàn-huat huat-àn (Constitution Act / Loi constitutionnelle), kî-tiong ê Ka-ná-tāi Kuân-lī kap tsū-îu hiàn-tsiong (Canadian Tsarter of Rights and Freedoms / Charte canadienne des droits et libertés) tsìn-tsi̍t-pōo hōo liân-pang ki-kòo lāi-bīn nn̄g-ê kuann-hong gí-giân ê tē-uī kap sú-iōng tit-tio̍h hiàn-huat ê pó-tsìng. Kuân-lī kap tsū-îu hiàn-tsiong kui-tīng:

  • Ing-gí kap Huat-gí sī Ka-ná-tāi ê kuann-hong gí-giân;
  • Tī kok-huē huē-gī--ni̍h, ta̍k-ke ū kuân-lī īng jīm-hô tsi̍t-ê kuann-hong gí-giân;
  • Sóo-ū kok-huē ê kì-lo̍k kap thong-kuè ê huat-àn su-iàu ū Ing-gí kap Huat-gí ê pán-pún, jî-tshiánn nn̄g-tsióng lóng sǹg sī kuann-hong tsìng-khak ê pán-pún;
  • Kap kok-huē siat-li̍p ê huat-īnn tshú-lí tāi-tsì ê sî-tsūn, īng Ing-gí ia̍h-sī Huat-gí lóng ē-sái--tit.
  • Ta̍k-ke ū kuân-lī īng jīm-hô tsi̍t-ê kuann-hong gí-giân tit-tio̍h liân-pang tsìng-hú ê ho̍k-bū.

Tsit-má Sin Pik-lûn-suī-khik(新伯倫瑞克; New Brunswick) sī Ka-ná-tāi î-it tsìng-sik siang-gí ê síng. Huat-gí sī Khue-pak-khik(魁北克; Quebec) ê kuann-hong gí-giân; kî-thann pueh-ê síng ê kuann-hong gí-giân lóng sī Ing-gí.

Tî-liáu Ing-gí kap Huat-gí, kî-thann gí-gián tī Ka-ná-tāi mā tsin tiōng-iàu. Kun-kì 2001-nî ê jîn-kháu tiau-tsa, 17% Ka-ná-tāi-lâng ê bú-gí m̄-sī kuann-hong gí-giân. Kî-tiong jîn-kháu thōng tsē ê sī Gī-tāi-lī-gí (1.6%), Tik-gí (1.5%), Kńg-tang-uē (1.1%) kap Pông-jia-phóo-gí(旁遮普語; Punjab) (0.9%).

Ka-ná-tāi mā ū tsiânn tsē guân-tsū-bîn gí-giân, m̄-koh tuā-pōo-hūn ē-hiáu kóng ê lâng jú-lâi jú-tsió. Kun-kì kāng tsi̍t-ê tiau-tsa, bú-gí jîn-kháu khah tsē ê guân-tsū-bîn gí-giân ū Khik-lí(克里; Cree) (72,680 lâng, Ka-ná-tāi jîn-kháu ê 0.25%), Ìn-liú-i-ti̍k-gí(印紐伊特語; Inuktitut) (29,005 lâng, 0.10%), kap Ò-kia̍t-pòo-uá-gí(奧傑布瓦語; Ojibway) (20,890 lâng, 0.07%).

Hîng-tsìng-khu[]

Tshiánn tsham-khó: Ka-ná-tāi ê síng kap líng-thóo

Guā-pōo liân-kiat[]

  • Tsit phinn sī uì Hô-ló-pah-kho(Holopedia) ê : "Canada" kái lâi--ê. Guân-pún ê tsok-tsiá tshiánn khuànn i ê pian-tsi̍p li̍k-sú.
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